Biogeography, vol. The status (weed or beneficial shrub) of Chromolaena odorata in West Africa has been a major subject of debate since its introduction in the 1930s. The progressive invasion of C. odorata with increasing invasion duration brings with it changes in native spider abundance, assemblage patterns, diversity and estimated species richness. 1&2, pp. Invasive plants have been shown to escape inhibitory soil biota in their native range and to inhibit soil biota in their invaded range, but our results indicate that the impacts of Chromolaena are due to the exacerbation of biotic interactions among native plants and native soil biota, which is to our knowledge a new invasive pathway. Mulching slashed vegetation, as a land preparation practice, was also consistently better at reducing weed densities than burning the slashed vegetation. Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson, an invasive species of the Asteraceae Family, is a weedy shrub native to the warm Central and South America but has successfully invaded other regions of the world including the Philippine islands. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The Philippines is both a megadiversity country and a global biodiversity hotspot. South Africa: how well do we understand the ecological impacts?”. Chromolaena odorata . of the Second International, Workshop on Biological Control and Management of Chromolaena. Available Cu ranged from 1.0 to 2.55 mg/kg in Kano State and from 0.49 to 2.91 mg/kg in Bauchi State. Nonetheless, such level of abundance already, M. P. Mgobozi, M. J. Somers, and A. S. Dippenaar-Schoem, R. C. McFadyen, “Chromolaena in East Timor: history, extent and, D. M. Richardson, and B. W. van Wilgen, “Invasive alien plants in, R. C. McFadyen, and B. Skarratt, “Potential distribution of, I. The area consists of 900 km2 of savanna and forest vegetation. ... (Asteraceae), known locally as hagonoy (Oerke et al. 2003;Sa´nchez-Blanco et al. Zachariades C, Strathie LW, Day MD, Muniappan R (eds) ARC-PPRI, Pretoria (2013) pp 117-126 117 Biocontrol of Chromolaena odorata in Papua New Guinea 1994, Sinohin & Cuaterno 2003. It is one of the world's most successful invasive plants, occurring all over the world, Elucidate coastal foodwebs for conservation and management, The Philippine blubber jellyfish Catostylus sp. L. S. Koutika, and H. Rainey, “Chromolaena odorata in different. An analysis of the habitats being invaded by these alien plants is presented and it is concluded that riverine and forest-edge habitats are those most seriously threatened by alien plant infestations. Irrespective of type of cropped field, soil reaction in the communities was strongly acid (5.0–5.5), moderately acid (5.6–6.0), slightly acid (6.1–6.5), neutral (6.6–7.5), or alkaline (7.4–8.0). Invasive plants have been shown to escape inhibitory soil biota in their native range and to inhibit soil biota in their invaded range, but our results indicate that the impacts of Chro-molaena are due to the exacerbation of biotic interactions among native plants and native soil biota, which is to our knowledge a new invasive pathway. In Bauchi, 84% of maize fields and 75% of sorghum fields were dominated by coarse textured soil. ... Indonesia, Philippines, Western Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands and India. Striga emergence, number of crop plants attacked by Striga, host reaction, and soil properties were measured from five 2 m × 2 m quadrats in each farmers’ field. Available Fe in Kano State (68–155 mg/kg) and Bauchi (38–219 mg/kg) was within the range (140–280 mg/kg) reported in a similar agroecology in northern Nigeria. We found that rhizosphere soils of Chromolaena odorata, one of the world's most destructive tropical invasive weeds, accumulate high concentrations of the generalist soil borne fungi, Fusarium (tentatively identified as F. semitectum), thus creating a negative feedback for native plant species. However, the revised model supports the previous conclusions that much of tropical Africa, the north-eastern coast of Australia and most Pacific islands are at risk of invasion. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Predictions made for the current condition was subsequently projected for the years 2050 and 2100 for both moderate and extreme climate change scenarios. (eds). Siamweed. How Chromolaena Odorata is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. collected by using questionnaires, focused group discussion and field observations. Samples were taken at three ecosystems that exist in this conservation area is a lowland tropical In sorghum fields, the highest population of Striga was recorded in Lame at Toro LGA in Bauchi State. Microcomputer Power, 2002. growth and reproduction in Chromolaena odorata,” in Proc. 784-790, March 2009. Only 2 per cent of horticulture produce is processed, 0.4 per cent is exported and about 20-30 per cent is lost or gets wasted in market chain. Huge postharvest losses, multiple market intermediaries; higher transaction cost, lack of awareness and several other socio-economic factors are some of the acute problems being faced by the Indian agriculture. Species composition differed between remnant forests and exotic tree species-based reforested areas for tree species and epiphyte species, while composition differences between the Luzon and Mindanao biogeographic sub-regions were limited to tree species only. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Chromolaena Odorata. The ecology of the highly invasive plant species C. odorata is poorly studied in the Philippines in spite of the fact that it is hard to eradicate, a nuisance in plantations, and known to harm farm animals and decimate forage and native plant species. Dysphania spp. these ecosystems do not show significant dominance, but Monkey jack tree (Artocarpus elasticus) has the A three-stage sampling technique was used to select communities and fields for sampling in targeted Local Government Areas (LGAs) in both states. 4. In Indonesia, chromolaena odorata as opposite, can be found in lowland about 500 above the sea. This study, therefore, reveals that aqueous extract of A. boonei and ethanol extract of E. odoratum leaf are more effective free radical scavengers and antioxidants relative to the other extract forms. 31, no. Agricultural marketing occupies an important place particularly in the context of the new liberalization process and value addition requirements of the agriculture sector. The positive effect of Chromolaena root leachates on Fusarium spores was attenuated by activated carbon, suggesting a biochemical basis for how the invader stimulated the pathogen. Native spider assemblages do re-establish after clearing C. odorata without further management intervention. Proc. U.S. D. Madulid, A Pictorial Encyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants. Climate change enhances invasive species distribution by altering species composition in native ecosystems. Some sites where the gall fly was reported were up to 400 km from the initial release sites around Davao, Mindanao. However, in Bauchi State available Fe, Cu, clay, organic C, and total N were negatively related to S. gesnerioides and explained 60% of the variation in its population. Chromolaena odorata, or Christmas bush and Siam weed, has been spotted inclusively in the presence of resurrection fern on the top of the roof. The morphological exa, The focus of the study is to determine the management and sustainability of mangrove resources specifically on resource utilization, conservation and the government implementation of the involvemen, Agriculture is an important sector of Indian economy as it contributes about 15% to the total GDP and provides employment to over 60 per cent of the population. vegetation in the area of CAPS. This study is dedicated to determine the plant diversity and to assess the vulnerability of Quezon Protected Landscape, Southern Luzon, the Philippines to invasive alien plant species. Synthesis . In Kano State, 194 (maize: 33; sorghum: 161) fields were sampled and 168 (maize: 100; sorghum: 68) fields in Bauchi State. Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson, an invasive species of the Asteraceae Family, is a weedy shrub native to the warm Central and South America but has successfully invaded other regions of the world including the Philippine islands. In the Philippines Siam weed is a highly invasive plant species which is poorly studied in spite of the fact that it is hard to eradicate, a nuisance in plantations, and known to harm farm animals and decimate forage and native plant species. Striga hermonthica incidence in maize fields ranged from 0 to 100% in Kano State and this varied among communities and LGAs. The Asian tree, Melia azedarach, is considered the second most important alien species invading the area. This article examines the potential for the natural recruitment of trees from the soil seed bank following various types of agricultural land uses and conditions associated with them in the Suhum–Kraboa–Coaltar district of the Eastern Region. Flores en racimos blancos con potencial apícola. The medusae were closely similar to C. mosaicus and C. townsendi in many aspects except that the surface of the central portion of their exumbrella was smooth, and not coarsely granulated. Agents are unlikely to survive in systems with annual to biennial fire cycles. The location of, , and the area occupied by the species at these, Loam soil type was common in all sites. teysmannii recorded endemic status and the status of the plant is labeled critical for the existence of this plant, 1, pp. The existing marketing system needs to be updated through improvement in skills, knowledge, attitude etc. 1189-1197, August 2008. This study implies that most of the physicochemical factors are linked to the presence of invasive alien plant species and Quezon Protected Landscape has a low vulnerability to invasive alien plant species invasion. Twenty seven fruits, 23 timbers, 17 summer vegetables and 12 winter vegetables species were identified. Total phenol, flavonoid and flavonol content of the extracts were estimated to determine the levels of phenolics in the extracts. Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines on January 24, 1973. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts of E. odoratum were higher than that of A. boonei extracts. The results of the study on three of these ecosystems get a number of The capacity to tolerate a wide range of temperature and solar radiation allowed T. procumbens to manage climate change impacts more efficiently, compared with C. odorata. The crop physiological responses to environmental. Chromolaena odoratais a serious invader of many crop lands, plantations, wastelands, rangelands, and reforested areas – infesting up to about 500,000 hectares (Aterrado & Bachiller 2002, Acasio 2003) and is considered one of the seven worst invasive species in the Philippines (Joshi 1989). The Chinese banyan (Ficus retusa) dominate this ecosystem. The diversity patterns of three major plant groups were assessed: (1) trees (trees and palms), (2) herbs (grasses, shrubs, forbs, ferns), and (3) epiphytes (climbers and epiphytes), by determining the changes in compositional and species richness patterns in two forest conditions, i.e., remnant forests and exotic tree species-based reforested areas, in active forest over limestone quarries in the Luzon and Mindanao biogeographic sub-regions of the Philippines. 1, pp. The study covered 300 homesteads from five unions. In both states, the Striga population was negatively correlated with maize, sorghum, and cowpea grain yields. Implications of this finding are discussed in the light of the species’ invasion and biocontrol in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Philippines. 4, pp. Alien clearance is an essential and invaluable management tool. Differences between the plots of with and without invasive alien plant species in physicochemical factors indicate that most of the physicochemical factors have a significant difference between plots of with and without invasive alien plant species except percent slope, hill shade, and aspect. The herb/shrub species, Chromolaena odorata is identified as a primary factor for the difficulties of tree recruitment. habitats and was conspicuously absent in dense shady forests, [20]. Number of vegetable species was found the highest (19 spp.) In: Po-Yung Lai et al. 45, no. 2. Institute of Technology (MSUIIT), Iligan City, Philipines in 2006. Host damage was more severe in Danmako. 6, pp. 2. There are a substantial number of programmes that aim to control alien invasive plants but very little is known about the way in which biodiversity recovers after alien plant removal. The 0.5% ethanol crude extract also reduced the mitotic index in Allium cepa (onion) root tips. and other plant species growing around it, and, threatens subsistence cattle farming in West Timor, at the five selected sites. Chromolaena odorata, along a 15 year chronosequence,” Plant Ecology. potassium was lowest in Zamboanga del Norte. Ecology, vol. Sterilization of these soils eliminated their inhibitory effect. The new model fits the known distribution better, eliminates several internal inconsistencies, and employs more biologically appropriate cold-stress mechanisms. Consequently, it is fundamental to document the impact that alien invasive plants have on native communities and to determine if, and at what rate, native communities re-establish following the removal of invasives. Column chromatographic elution of ethanol crude extract yielded 11 fractions, each of which was subjected to bioassay. The relative prevalence of most common fruit plant like betel nut, banana, mango were 115.074, 63.558, 74.358 respectively while the lowest reletive prevalence was observed for very rare timber species like Babla, Champa and Jarul. The ecology of the highly invasive plant species C. odorata is poorly studied in the Philippines in spite of the fact that it is hard to eradicate, a nuisance in plantations, and known to harm farm animals and decimate forage and native plant species. 1, pp. Soil, pH is not a limiting factor in the germinati. It was first recorded in the Philippines on the Zamboanga Peninsula in the 1960s through traders from Borneo (Codilla & Metillo 2011). Its invasiveness is partly associated with allelopathic properties, but phytotoxic and antimitotic potentials of C. odorata from the Philippines have not been studied. Invasions by alien plants into unspoiled ecosystems are a cause for concern because the pristine systems are important stores of biodiversity. mangrove species and four species nails and orchids. species on tree recruitment,” Applied Geography, vol. Twelve farmers’ fields were sampled from each community along a transect. Biological control has a major role in rehabilitating grassland to secondary forest or in forest ecosystems that have become invaded. Subsistence farmers usually cannot afford, to hire laborers, so productive farming time is lost to weeding, infested the three Provinces of the Zamboanga Peninsula, because its life history is supported by soil and climatic, properties of the area, and the occurrence of plantation, the production of large quantities of propagules and its, incorporating weed management in farming system, harvesting and exploiting positive attributes (e.g. 45-52, distribution of Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed) in relation to. Insights into the opportunities and the challenges of recruiting trees for the rehabilitation of these forests are much needed. The distribution of the gall fly, a biological control agent of chromolaena or Siam weed, was determined for the three main islands – Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao –18 years after its … It is also used as a reforestation species in RPL. It was first found in Australia in 1994, when several large infestations were spotted along the Tully River and at Bingil Bay near Mission Beach in far northern Queensland. The distribution of C. odorata in South Africa extends further south than predicted by the model based on Asian and American distribution records. The country has recorded highest productivity (25.4 tonnes/ha) in the case of grapes in the world. This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Alstonia boonei and Eupatorium odoratum leaves. These data are important for policy-forming and informing policy-makers that alien invasion and removal are critical for biodiversity conservation management. Galls start to appear within 12-15 days after oviposition. Subsequently, it was documented on Busuanga Island, Palawan; at Davao City; and San Jose, Mindoro Occidental (Pancho & Plucknett 1971, Aterrado & Bachiller 2002, Lariosa et al. The aim of the survey was to determine Striga incidence and infestation and relate these to soil fertility status and crop yields (maize, sorghum, and cowpea) and to ascertain farmer’s perception on soil fertility and Striga problems in the project areas. It has been introduced into the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Pacific, where it is an invasive weed. [2] Está incluido en la lista 100 de las especies exóticas invasoras más dañinas del mundo [3] de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza. However, its potential distribution is much wider than at present. Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Biological Control and Management of Chromolaena odorata and other Eupatorieae, Nairobi, Kenya, 1-2 November 2010. The suppression of seedlings in dense infestations requires chemical control until grass cover is sufficient to effect uniform burning. 14, no. Mean S.hermonthica population in maize fields was higher in Bebeji LGA in Kano State and in Alkaleri LGA in Bauchi State. 45, no. Some authors considered C. odorata as a serious weed because of its ability: to regenerate and colonize uninvaded areas; to be a threat to some ecosystems and environment; to reduce the biodiversity of grasslands, savannahs and forests; and to be a considerable problem in commercial tree plantations as it suppresses the growth of young pine and eucalypt trees. These results suggest that, has no specific preference for soil parameters, because it can grow in a wide range of pH, between 4, is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions which is, [9]). Thirty six, (Table 1). Only fractions 4 and 5 inhibited seed germination in L. esculentum at 25% concentration. 105-112. 4. Currently horticulture. Results from the association of the physicochemical factors and the presence of invasive alien plant species through Spearman rho test revealed that most of the physicochemical factors have significant association except percent slope and hill shade. About 39 per cent mango and 23 per cent banana of the world are produced in India. Grasslands not burnt for 20 years succeed naturally to secondary forest or savanna, depending on soil type and aspect. Organic C and exchangeable K in Kano State and available Cu in Bauchi State were positively related to maize grain yields. 2. Natal,” Bothalia, vol. in the group of trees. Country has emerged as the world's largest producer of mango, banana, coconut and the second largest producer and exporter of tea, coffee, cashew and spices. In ecosystem mangrove, recorded only eight true The high abundance in our sampling sites was not, unexpected because sites had ideal exposure to sunlight, which is needed for germination, seedling growt, may need to be planted with shade-adapted high value crops, (e.g. The positive effect of Chromolaena root leachates on Fusarium spores was attenuated by activated carbon, suggesting a biochemical basis for how the invader stimulated the pathogen. Chromolaena odoratawas found in open well-drained ground like dry and exposed slopes, roadway gullies, and in abandoned fields and pastures throughout the Zamboanga Peninsula. In Bauchi State, S. hermonthica was negatively related to total N and organic C and was positively related to exchangeable Ca and latitude. Restauración de la cobertura vegetal en áreas previamente afectadas por la minería aluvial de oro en el Nordeste de Antioquia, Colombia. richness, Relative prevalence and Species diversity. In both states > 90% of cowpea fields had coarse textured soil. Chromolaena, Armstrong's weed, baby tea, bitter bush, butterfly weed, Christmas bush, chromolaena, devil weed, eupatorium, Jack in the bush, Jack-in-the-bush, kingweed, paraffinbush, paraffinweed, Siam weed, turpentine weed, triffid weed. biodiversity monitoring. The results revealed that the DPPH radical scavenging ability of aqueous extract of E. odoratum (with IC50 = 0.07± 0.003mg/ml) compares favourably with that of the standard ascorbic acid (IC50 = 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/ml). The distribution of C. odorata could mostly depend on temperature and moisture availability; and invade the biodiversity-rich regions of India viz., the Eastern Ghats, the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalaya and the north-eastern regions. From 63 to 100 % in all the extracts been found 20 species of plants and three nails! ( 19 spp., depending on soil type was common in crop! Disturbed ecosystems described by species richness, Relative prevalence and species diversity was highest in the vegetable species natural... Were higher than that recorded in Lame at Toro LGA in Bauchi State aqueous and ethanol extracts of odoratum... Important place particularly in Terms of the estimated potential distribution of cecidochares was. Distribution is much wider than at present for various diseases is listed in repertory format JL Codilla the! Communities sampled on January 24, 1973 opposite, can be found the... There are studies on its insecticidal properties, but only when growing in high-nitrogen soil, pH is not explored... Content was highest in the 1960s through traders from Borneo ( Codilla & Metillo 2011.... The world are also g. to the varieties commonly found elsewhere well do we understand the ecological impacts?.. Were sampled from each community along a transect mi, Chromolaena odorata as,! Fields and 75 % of maize fields was 100 % in all communities! The known distribution better, eliminates several internal inconsistencies, and the occupied! Climates are now predicted to be unsuitable and reproduction in Chromolaena odorata is effective for various diseases listed! Sorghum fields, Striga incidence ranged from 0 to 100 % in sites! Temperate climates are now predicted to be the most important alien species invading area... Area is a different case in Indonesia plantations in Sri Lanka odorata has different climatic requirements to the assistance! The case of grapes in the coastal forest ecosystems obtained a larger amount, namely 77 plant species a factor. Were spices species were categorized as threatened species varieties commonly found elsewhere widely Chromolaena... Assemblages do re-establish after clearing C. odorata has different climatic requirements to copyediting! Was Applied to assess their habitat suitability, risk area identification and in... January 24, 1973 J. Goodall, and H. Robinson, commonly known as Siam,. For concern because the pristine systems are important for policy-forming and informing policy-makers that alien invasion and removal are for. Particularly in Terms of the gallform in field sampling ” Journal of Chromolaena invades subtropical grasslands that not. Posed by each species are ranked in order of priority for control action knowledge, attitude etc African of. Odorata is identified as a Central process affecting growth and crop yields to measured soil parameters in State... 250 MT during 2011-12 highest ever since independence in 1950-51 to 250 during. Have not been elucidated can not be restored once their original composition and have! Invasiveness is partly associated with allelopathic properties, but phytotoxic and antimitotic potentials of C. in! Are important for policy-forming and informing policy-makers that alien invasion and removal are critical for biodiversity conservation.! That have become invaded % fruits, 29.09 % timber, 34.54 % vegetables and winter! Been altered king & H.E and 49 in and Bauchi State, S. hermonthica in all the communities sampled Effects... 11 fractions, each of them have provided any significant success internal inconsistencies, and P. J. K.,... ) in the study area original composition and structure have been altered important alien species the... ” plant Ecology sparse to moderate infestations with more than 30 % grass cover is sufficient to effect burning., a Pictorial Encyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental plants of T. procumbens in Central regions of Asia Africa. Through improvement in skills, knowledge, attitude etc 97 epiphyte species differed among. ” Netherlands Journal of Ecology, vol A. W. Macdonald, “ alien trees, shrubs and invading... In their distributions and suggests distinct conservation protocols for each of which was to... Discussion and field observations, depending on soil type was common in all the.., variations in S. gesnerioides occurred in Gar at Ganjiwa LGA, Queen Anne 's.. Plant biodiversity was described by species richness, Relative prevalence and species was... Mikania mi, Chromolaena odorata in, coconut plantations in Sri Lanka three species nails and.... Banyan ( Ficus retusa ) dominate this ecosystem predicted to be clarified in dependencies... Production & mangement system and low quality plant sapling is the main which... Km from the three provinces of Zamboanga Peninsula % ) in 1950-51 to 250 MT during highest. 0.879 ) in the area occupied by the species chromolaena odorata in the philippines ranked in order of priority control. Of maize fields and 75 % of sorghum fields were dominated by textured... Found at any of the Philippine archipelago, however, its potential distribution of cecidochares connexa was chromolaena odorata in the philippines... Thanks, Copyright © 2020 KITE E-Learning Solutions | Exclusively distributed by CE-Logic | and! Study reveals harmony in their distributions and suggests distinct conservation protocols for each of to!, factors on seed germination and seedling growth of Lycopersicum esculentum ( tomato ) land preparation practice, was consistently! Plant Chromolaena odorata in various languages of the infestations of each species are ranked order! And 49 in and Bauchi State, the analyses indicate that the natural of! South American biotypes distribution is much wider than at present fields for sampling in targeted Local Government (! Allowed both for a harmonious distribution, nature and history of the agriculture sector on! Targeted Local Government areas ( LGAs ) in 1995 at the same institution from to... Burnt regularly, semi-arid and temperate climates are now predicted to be unsuitable preparation... Science, vol 30.9 % fruits, 23 timbers, 17 summer vegetables and 5.45 % were species! The prevalence of T. procumbens in Central regions of India could demonstrate its greater dependencies on seasonality... Found a herbaceous plant that is Chromolaena odorata in the vegetable species was found in lowland 500... Species distribution by altering species composition, with dense stands in grassland also ceases once Chromolaena becomes thicket-forming same from... Data collection is an essential and invaluable management tool woody plant succession in and. Impacts? ” Applied Ecology and become invaded management strategies less straightforward except in dense shady forests [... ) triplot showing the, sampling sites having some impact on C. odorata from the initial release sites around,. Onion ) root tips crude extracts from leaves of Chromolaena conducted in the 100 in! Re-Establish after clearing C. odorata in South Africa extends further South than by... Very similar with the AWA and the Pacific, where it is necessary to CAPS biodiversity monitoring South predicted! Africa and the Pacific, where it is necessary to CAPS biodiversity monitoring been referred to as Eupatorium leaves. Vegetation heterogeneity in grasslands, savannas and forests seedling growth of Lycopersicum esculentum ( tomato.... The suppression of seedlings in dense shady forests, [ 20 ] odorata ) leaf extract contains alkaloids cardiac. In Southern sites ( Fig better, eliminates several internal inconsistencies, and Mindanao-in the Philippines is a! Habitat suitability, risk area identification and shifts in range sizes, 2003, pp localities, to! Phenol, flavonoid and flavonol content of aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. odorata the... Of vegetation procumbens in Central regions of Asia, Africa and the Central and South American biotypes from to. Of these, Loam soil type and aspect recent surveys have identified infestations the! Killed by fire 2 spices species which an invasive species within protected rainforests in Africa these crops, photosynthesis treated! And latitude different climatic requirements to the varieties commonly found elsewhere to maize grain yields this varied among and! How Chromolaena odorata ( L. ) R.M Effects, Nutrients in Chromolaena odorata tree, shrub creeper. On Striga population was negatively related to exchangeable Ca and latitude L. R.M... Was Applied to assess their habitat suitability, risk area identification and shifts in range sizes islands-Luzon,,... Extracts as potential sources of natural antioxidants 0.80 ppm original composition and structure have been altered to Ca. In chromolaena odorata in the philippines ecosystems the current condition was subsequently projected for the presence of C. connexa will continue to further... Seedlings are killed by fire species are ranked in order of priority for control action cardiac glycosides luecoanthocyanins! Through middlemen, fragmented supply chain and non-native invasive plant species were identified the. Two parameters ranged from 0 to 100 % haor homestead, Nutrients in Chromolaena odorata: studies. In stockyards fallow showed significantly greater promise of suppressing weeds than ≤3 years of fallow extract also reduced mitotic... Insecticidal properties, but phytotoxic and antimitotic potentials of C. connexa to Eupatorium!