BA 604 was the main logistical center during the Vietnam War. [9], There were five large base areas in the panhandle of Laos (see map). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). By mid-year the number of sorties being flown had grown from 20 to 1,000 per month. In January 1965, the U.S. command in Saigon requested control over bombing operations in the areas of Laos adjacent to South Vietnam's five northernmost provinces, claiming that the area was part of the "extended battlefield". William J. Duiker: Ho Chi Minh. BA 609 was important due to a fine road network that made it possible to transport supplies during the rainy season. Ho Chi Minh ... Sources seem to be all over the place on exactly when Kong Le split with the Pathet Lao and again sided with the Royal Laotian ... Ho Chi Minh trail. Clark Dougan, David Fulghum, et al. Bernard B. Phone: (+84 28) 3840 9292. [18], It was learned by U.S. intelligence that the enemy was using the Kong and Bang Fai Rivers to transport food, fuel, and munitions shipments by loading materiel into half-filled steel drums and then launching them into the rivers. [23] As early as 1969 PAVN had begun its largest logistical effort of the entire conflict. The Ho Chi Minh trail (Vietnamese: Đường mòn Hồ Chí Minh, also called Annamite Range trail (Vietnamese: Đường Trường Sơn) was a logistical network of roads and trails that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. The trail was a combination of truck routes, and bicycle and footpaths. [5] : 605, fn 58 The government sought cuts in a Vietnamese translation [133] and banned distribution of an issue of the Far Eastern Economic Review which carried a small item about the controversy. The Ho Chi Minh Trail was first formed during the First Indochina War. During "Commando Hunt IV" (30 April–9 October 1971), U.S., South Vietnamese, and Laotian forces began to feel the North Vietnamese reaction to General Lon Nol's coup in Cambodia and the subsequent closure of the port of Sihanoukville to its supply shipments. Content Delivery . Ho Chi Minh Primary Sources: Ho Chi Minh: Speeches and Primary Sources. Omissions? Addition, there is the unknown tonnage dropped … This video worksheet allows students learn about the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Ho Chi Minh Trail 1964–73 Steel Tiger, Barrel Roll, and the secret air wars in Vietnam and Laos 1st Edition by Peter E. Davies and Publisher Osprey Publishing. Starting south of Hanoi in North Vietnam, the main trail veered southwestward to enter Laos, with periodic side branches or exits running east into South Vietnam. Ein Mensch, eine Nation, eine Epoche, eine Sache. The first arms delivery via the trail, a … In the early days of the conflict the trail was used strictly for the infiltration of manpower. Some sections have been paved over to make highways; other parts remain much as they were in the 1960s—narrow dirt tracks. [7]:182 A June 1966 DIA estimate credited the North Vietnamese with 1,000 km (600 mi) of passable roads within the corridor, at least 300 km (200 mi) of which were good enough for year-round use. All personnel were extracted by 1 December. [11]:59 "Steel Tiger" was only one of several escalations approved under National Security Action Memorandum 328. Verlag der Fremdsprachen, Hanoi 1980. Biography of Ho Chi Minh - North Vietnamese Revolutionary Leader | Vietnam War Documentary. The colour categories are based on what percentage of riders are riding a trail in its intended direction. Since U.S. armed forces personnel were never officially acknowledged as being in Laos, the American ambassador to Laos became enraged that U.S. personnel had been spotted in uniform at the Laotian refueling field. [11]:255–283, This effort was supported by MACV-SOG recon teams, who, besides carrying out recon, wiretap, and bomb damage assessment missions for "Commando Hunt", also hand-placed sensors for "Igloo White". May 9, 2016 - Ho Chi Minh Trail Primary Source Documents #vietnam #hochiminhtrail #primarysourcejunkie The plastic pipeline, equipped with numerous small pumping stations, managed to transfer diesel fuel, gasoline, and kerosene all through the same pipe. Nightlife in Ho Chi Minh City, Places to go in Ho Chi Minh City at night. A revelation for U.S. intelligence analysts in late-1968 was the discovery of a petroleum pipeline running southwest from the northern port of Vinh. At the time, Hanoi could supply its southern allies much more efficiently by sea. The route south was the Ho Chi Minh Trail. [9], Human labour, pushing heavily laden bicycles, driving oxcarts, or acting as human pack animals, moving hundreds of tonnes of supplies in this fashion was quickly supplanted by truck transport—using Soviet, Chinese, or Eastern Bloc models—which quickly became the chief means of moving supplies and troops. Testing on the project began in September above the Kong River watershed that ran through the Steel Tiger and Tiger Hound areas. The same applied to the roads to Northern Laos. Why would his request not be met considering the characterization of Ho Chi Minh by Operations Officer Archimedes Patti? In reality, it was a sophisticated logistical network consisting of paved roads, C&C outposts and even a fuel pipeline system. The "Nguyen Hue Offensive"—better known as the "Easter Offensive"—was underway. Historical records preserved at the National Archives provide insight into this critical period. Since this testament was written by Ho Chi Minh himself, it was very convenient to find direct quotes from him that showed his thoughts about the war. By April 1965, command of the 559th Group devolved upon General Phan Trọng Tuệ, who assumed command of 24,000 men in six truck transportation battalions, two bicycle transportation battalions, a boat transportation battalion, eight engineer battalions, and 45 commo-liaison stations. The Ho Chi Minh Trail is a system of trails made in the Vietnam War send North Vietnamese soldiers into South Vietnam and to help the Viet Cong fight against non-communist soldiers. Both North and South Vietnamese were to maintain control in the areas under their influence and negotiations between the two nations, possibly leading to a coalition government and unification, were to take place. Eventually, the last commo-liaison station in Laos or Cambodia was reached and the vehicles were unloaded. The critical stretch was in Laos, which was supposedly neutral but which in actuality was one of the major battle areas of the war. Accordingly, work was undertaken to connect a series of old trails leading from the panhandle of North Vietnam southward along the upper slopes of the Annamese Cordillera (French: Chaîne Annamitique; Vietnamese: Truong-Son) into eastern Laos and Cambodia and thence into South Vietnam. 1 Description 2 Conquest 2.1 Equipment 2.2 Bases 2.2.1 U.S. Base 2.2.2 South Guard Post 2.2.3 Temple 2.2.4 Old Shrine 2.2.5 North Guard Post 3 Gallery "May 1, 1970 - The Ho Chi Minh Trail … [10]:92, Early in 1969, the pipeline crossed the Lao frontier through the Mu Gia Pass and, by 1970, it reached the approaches to the A Shau Valley in South Vietnam. [13]:85–91 The operation evolved into Operation Hardnose, in which CIA-backed Laotian irregular reconnaissance team operations took place. Primary Source Sets Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen A letter from Ho Chi Minh to Harry Truman in 1946 regarding the US involvement in Vietnamese independence from France. A Biography. Search for: Hit Enter to search or Esc key to close. In early-February 1971, 16,000 (later 20,000) ARVN troops rolled across the Laotian border along Route 9 and headed for the PAVN logistical center at Tchepone. These efforts were hindered by morning fog and overcast, and by the smoke and haze produced by the slash-and-burn agriculture practiced by the indigenous population. In 1970, the same fate befell another camp at Dak Seang. Ho Chi Minh Trail Tet Offensive Lyndon Johnson Richard Nixon Vietnamization Vietnam Veterans Against the War. U.S. aircraft were freed for interdiction missions and as many as 500 per day were flying over Laos. The drop itself went as planned, with good coverage over the road for about 800 metres (1⁄2 mi). Trails are compared with nearby trails in the same city region with a possible 25 colour shades. In Vietnam, the road was called Truong Son Road. First, the portions of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in North Vietnam leading to Laos became the Ho Chi Minh Super Highway. Saigon is now called Ho Chi Minh City in honor of the late North Vietnamese leader. For his actions on that day, Butterfield received the Silver Star medal. Personnel interdiction was abandoned by early-1969. The single oil pipeline that had once terminated near the A Shau Valley now consisted of four lines (the largest 20 cm [eight inches] in diameter) and extended south to Lộc Ninh. KEEP IN TOUCH WITH US. His father, Nguyen Sinh Huy was a teacher employed by the French. Further, with the bombing halt, the North Vietnamese moved anti-aircraft defenses from “The North” to Laos. Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9781472842510, 1472842510. Fifty-six tests were conducted by October; 85% were judged to be successful. Wellspring Saigon International Bilingual School. The colour categories are based on what percentage of riders are riding a trail in its intended direction. The PAVN first launched massed infantry attacks supported by armor and heavy artillery to crush ARVN positions on the flanks of the main advance. This video worksheet works great as a “Do Now Activity” or as a complement to any lecture or lesson plan on th . During these operations, the North Vietnamese suffered approximately 100,000 casualties while the South Vietnamese suffered 30,000 fatalities during the fighting.[26]:183. Übersetzung bewerten 1 "Hilfreich"-Wertung. Mit sehr schönen spaßigen Trails, die ich in der Gegend gar nicht erwartet hätte. [10]:92, Trucked supplies traveled in convoys from North Vietnam in relays, with trucks shuttling from only one way station to the next. [11]:44 On 20 March 1965, after the initiation of Operation Rolling Thunder against North Vietnam, President Lyndon B. Johnson gave approval for a corresponding escalation against the trail system. The Spectres "established control over and successfully suppressed, to a certain extent at least, our nighttime supply operations". One notable operation was Dewey Canyon which took place from 22 January to 18 March 1969 in I Corps. The responsibility to build the pipeline fell to Lieutenant Colonel Phan Tu Quang, who became the first Chief of the Fuel Supply Department, and Major Mai Trong Phuoc, who was the Commander of Road Work Team 18, the secret name for the workers who built the pipeline. …the supplies moved over the Ho Chi Minh Trail, originally a network of footpaths and dirt roads (often paved after 1967) through communist-controlled areas in Laos and Cambodia. [2]:88, After the initiation of U.S. naval interdiction efforts in coastal waters, known as Operation Market Time, the trail had to do double duty. The southwest monsoon (commonly called the rainy season) from mid-May to mid-September, brought heavy precipitation (70% of 3,800 mm (150 in) per year). U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group, Annex N, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 19:34. PAVN responded to U.S. nighttime bombing by building the 1,000 kilometer-long Road K ("Green Road") from north of Lum Bum to lower Laos. Primary Sources Ho Chi Minh. Two A-1E Skyraider aircraft provided air cover. President Johnson then gave authorization for the program, which lasted until July 1972.[11]:226–228. The sky was usually overcast with high temperatures. That night, at a party at one of the local CIA watering holes, the C-130 crews and the CIA operatives celebrated the successful mission. The seizure of territory within South Vietnam itself allowed Hanoi to extend the trail across the border with Laos and into that country. 1965 [2]:261, A Spectre countermeasure was unveiled on 29 March 1972, when a Spectre was shot down on a night mission by a surface-to-air SA-7 missile near Tchepone. [6]:3–4, As early as May 1958 PAVN and Pathet Lao (PL) forces had seized the transportation hub at Tchepone, on Laotian Route 9. [6]:295, The weather in southeastern Laos came to play a large role both in the supply effort and in U.S. and South Vietnamese efforts to interdict it. Departure Date. An after-action report dated 10 December 1968, signed by LTC Elvin R. Heiberg III is available in the National Archives. Within this BT there were: 25th and 27th Engineer Battalions; 101st and 53rd Truck Transport Battalions; 14th AAA Battalion; two infantry companies; 8th Guide Battalion (soldiers to take troops and trucks from one station to the next); three stores companies; a communications company; a medical care unit; three teams of surgeons; a quarantine unit; and a workshop to repair trucks. The trail was put into operation beginning in 1959, after the North Vietnamese leadership decided to use revolutionary warfare to reunify South with North Vietnam. [10]:168 The group consisted of four truck transportation regiments, two petroleum pipeline regiments, three anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) regiments, eight engineer regiments, and the 968th Infantry Division. By 1974, the trail was a well-marked series of jungle roads (some of them paved) and underground support facilities such as hospitals, fuel-storage tanks, and weapons and supply caches. [2]:127, Two types of units served under the 559th Group: "Binh Trams" (BT) and commo-liaison units. [7]:158, A common historical perspective supports the efficacy of the campaigns (despite their failure to halt or slow infiltration), as they did restrict enemy materiel and manpower in Laos and Cambodia. The name of this trail was given by the Americans and was taken from Ho Chi Minh, the leader of North Vietnam. Eventually this new route extended past Siem Prang and reached the Mekong River near Stung Treng.[2]:382. Skip to primary content. By the end of 1968, bombing missions over southern Laos had climbed 300 percent, from 4,700 sorties in October to 12,800 in November. It was named by the U.S. after North Vietnamese president Hồ Chí Minh. In 1959 the North Vietnamese created Transportation Group 759, which was equipped with 20 steel-hulled vessels to carry out such infiltration. On 14 December 1964, the U.S. Air Force's (USAF) "Operation Barrel Roll" carried out the first systematic bombardment of the Hồ Chí Minh trail in Laos. The vehicles were then unloaded and reloaded onto "fresh" trucks at each station. Coordinated anti-aircraft fire made tactical air support and resupply difficult and costly, with 108 helicopters shot down and 618 others damaged. The Ho Chi Minh Highway (*often referred incorrectly as the HCM Trail) or Ho Chi Minh Road as it’s also called, is a cross-country strip of pavement that connects the South of Vietnam to the North.A drivable reminder of the nations once leader, Ho Chi Minh, who was also credited for joining the South and North of Vietnam as a united country. During the Vietnam War, it served as the primary artery for moving troops, vehicles, and supplies. [7]:15, By 1959, the 559th had 6,000 personnel in two regiments alone, the 70th and 71st,[2]:88 not including combat troops in security roles or North Vietnamese and Laotian civilian laborers. The sensor system was not sophisticated enough to detect enemy personnel, so the effort was given up until "Operation Island Tree" in late-1971. Hanoi made the decision to stand and fight. The signing of the Paris Peace Accords seemed to bring the conflict in Southeast Asia to an end. Thanks to improvements to the trail system (including opening new routes that would connect to the Sihanouk Trail in Cambodia), the quantity of supplies transported during 1965 almost equaled the combined total for the previous five years. (eds), National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, first phase of a limited PAVN offensive in South Vietnam, "The infamous and ingenious Ho Chi Minh Trail", United States Army Center of Military History, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ho_Chi_Minh_trail&oldid=993839775, Articles with failed verification from May 2020, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2013, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, BA 611 facilitated transport from BA 604 to BA 609. May, seemingly sealing the fate of the trail was little affected by repeated bombing! With the bombing halt, the road was called Truong Son road, could... Each other 1959 the North Vietnamese Revolutionary leader | Vietnam War Documentary coordinated anti-aircraft fire made air! 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