2. But higher population densities may have beneficial effects as well: As population grows, some governments make greater investments in infrastructure such as sewer lines and sewage treatment plants that ultimately reduce levels of environmental contamination. Second, staff used geographic information system maps to compare data on population and land use for the past 50 years. Students compare several maps to explore relationships between high and low population density, transportation corridors, climate, and land cover in the United States. Main cities here include Recife and Fortaleza. Kenya, Liberia, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico, have lost over 70 percent of their mangroves.14. Achieving a balance between top-down legislative authorities and bottom-up community involvement requires understanding issues and maintaining strong links with stakeholders in the area. All rights reserved. Washington, DC 20009 These fishermen sometimes unknowingly exacerbate a problem created by tankers and ocean liners. UNEP, “Tourism’s Three Main Impact Areas” (Oct. 9, 2001), accessed online at www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/sust-tourism/env-3main.htm, on Aug. 14, 2003. Integrating Population, Health, and Environment Interventions in the Philippines: The People and Environment Coexistence Development Project. But tourism can also have harmful effects (see Box 1). Ask students to describe the patterns they see. Buccoo Reef, a marine park in Tobago, is the Caribbean island’s largest, shallowest, and most accessible reef; as such, it is of immense value to the tourism industry. The problem is particularly acute in developing countries. Point out the East Coast and West Coast. ICM projects developed out of separate single-sector programs, such as those introducing ecologically sound fishing practices and improving the quality and availability of couples counseling on family planning, and later evolved into integrated programs in which project staff worked with local communities and external experts to coordinate integrated population, health, and environment programs (see Box 2). Students should recognize that many more people live near the coasts than inland, although the Great Lakes and a few places in the interior, such as Atlanta, Georgia, are densely populated. Moreover, the ships provide few long-term economic benefits for the local population, since they do not employ many local citizens. How might global warming exacerbate coastal hazards? Explain to students that darker areas indicate greater population density, which measures how many people live in a square mile. 1. Integrated coastal management (ICM), an internationally accepted approach to managing resources that is based on the United States’ 1972 Coastal Zone Management Act, allows policymakers and planners to take population issues into account when looking at the pressures, threats, and opportunities facing coastal areas. Photograph by Indumathi Govindasamy, My Shot. Coastal areas often offer good, arable land and the best land for easy transportation. Densely populated areas close to seas are also the most attractive for a lot of economic activity. 1145 17th Street NW Bjorn Kjerfve et al., “CARICOMP: A Caribbean Network of Marine Laboratories, Parks, and Reserves for Coastal Monitoring and Scientific Collaboration” (May 1998), accessed online at www.unesco.org/, Reef Relief, “Map of World’s Coral Reefs,” accessed online at www.reefrelief.org/Coral%20Forest/map.html, on Aug. 19, 2003; and R. Costanza et al., “The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital,”. 4. Coral reefs worldwide are deteriorating at an alarming rate: As of late 2000, 27 percent were severely damaged, compared with 10 percent in 1992.2 More reefs are degraded and threatened by dynamite fishing, coral mining, and other human activities, as well as by bleaching caused by rising ocean temperatures. Check students’ drawings to make sure they understand why people live near coasts. Rainera L. Luero and Robert Layng, “Understanding Reproductive Health/Natural Resource Management Integration in the Philippines,”. Geography, Human Geography, Physical Geography. The population of the United States reached 300 million on October 17, 2006, said the U.S. Census Bureau. Or is it in an area that has few people? Brian Voigt, “Glossary of Coastal Terminology” (March 1998), accessed online at www.csc.noaa.gov/text/glossary.html, on Aug. 15, 2003; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Policymakers and program managers can take several steps to address and integrate population concerns into their coastal management efforts. Why are the impacts of coastal hazards so great? Include Population Data in Baseline Studies on Coastal and Marine Resources. Since the early 1990s, sea level has been measured from space using radar altimeters, which determine the height of the sea surface by me… The reef is also threatened by inadequate treatment of sewage in the surrounding area. Phone: 800-877-9881 Liz Creel prepared this policy brief with assistance from PRB staff and other colleagues. This work has been funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) under the MEASURE Communication project (HRN-A-00-98-000001-00). Show students the NG Education interactive map. Box 1 Incorporate Population and Gender Dynamics Into Planning. You cannot download interactives. Flood control is an important issue for the Netherlands, as due to its low elevation, approximately two thirds of its area is vulnerable to flooding, while the country is densely populated.Natural sand dunes and constructed dikes, dams, and floodgates provide defense against storm surges from the sea. 3. https://www.answers.com/Q/Why_are_coastal_areas_so_densely_populated The human population of the area is relatively high in the central part of the ecoregion from southern Kenya to northern Tanzania (around 100 persons per km2 in the rural areas). Consequently, many coastal nations have experienced rapid uncontrolled development along their coastlines. As a result, the use of modern family planning methods among couples of reproductive age increased by 7 percent in less than two years, and communities decided to increase the size of protected marine areas from 12 to 203 hectares. Population estimates for coastal watersheds could provide useful information for coastal managers, especially if the data describe population dynamics on a larger scale. Integrated management of the marine environment and its natural resources requires greater emphasis on acquiring, analyzing, and using environmental data from a variety of disciplines. These challenges are particularly acute for island countries, where coasts often comprise the entire territory.6 Such countries may also be threatened by rising sea levels, a possible consequence of climate change. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), “Mangroves and Estuaries” (2000), accessed online at http://atlas.aaas.org/index.php?part=2&sec=eco&sub=mangroves, on Aug. 15, 2003. Terms of Service |  Email: PRBKenya@prb.org, © 2020 Population Reference Bureau. The NE of Brazil is sparsely populated inland but is densely populated at the coast. In the densely forested southern part of the region, which has historically been more difficult to develop, rural population densities are generally lower than in the open savanna. The average population density in coastal areas is about 80 persons per square kilometer, twice the world’s average population density. adapted from National Geographic Xpeditions lesson “Taking Care of Our Oceans”. .ng-c-sponsor-logo { Macao, Monaco, Singapore, Hong Kong and Gibraltar are the five most densely populated. They also provide food, building materials, shoreline protection, and many indirect benefits for people living near them. These studies can be conducted using either exhaustive research or rapid assessment techniques. The figures in China and Southeast Asia are staggering: 1,000 people arrive in China’s large coastal cities each day, and similar numbers move to the coasts in Vietnam and the Philippines. Students describe crowded and uncrowded places, brainstorm possible reasons for crowding, and brainstorm good and bad things about living in a crowded place. The Northern Plains of India are densely populated due to the fine alluvium deposits which makes the plain very fertile. 3362 days since Next Geography Class!!! Students should recognize that many more people live near the coasts than inland, although the Great Lakes and a few places in the interior, such as Atlanta, Georgia, are densely populated. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. The few cities in the country are densely populated because of the limited amount of livable area. After Mongolia, Namibia is the second least densely populated country in … Over half of the United States population lives within 50 miles of the coast. Contaminants and activities that destroy coastal habitats and ecosystems also contribute to the loss of the marine fauna on which many people rely for food and income. The city statistics on this website use the urban centre boundaries 2015 from GHSL. Coral reefs are major storehouses for biodiversity, providing habitat for at least 1 million species of marine animals and plants despite covering only a tiny fraction of the ocean floor. The project used a three-stage approach to identify and address population changes that affect fishing in the area. These steps allowed PESCO-DEV to collect baseline data and conduct focus-group discussions with local citizens and decisionmakers on the relationship between population and land-use changes, the direction of these changes, and possible steps to address problems. Coastal regions, areas that are home to a large and growing proportion of the world’s population, are undergoing environmental decline. PRB’s work with Save the Children in the Philippines, highlighted in this brief, has been supported by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. PRB’s Population, Health, and Environment Program disseminates the latest analysis and scientific information on the causes and consequences of critical population, health, and environment linkages, and on the ways that these linkages can be addressed. In many countries, populations in coastal areas are growing faster than those in noncoastal areas. Stretching inland from the Gulf Coast, the Coastal Plains, encompassing about two-fifths of the state’s land area, range from sea level to about 1,000 feet (300 metres) in elevation.… Coastal regions also provide critical inputs for industry, including water and space for shipping and ports; opportunities for recreational activities such as fishing and diving; and other raw materials, including salt and sand. The United Nations Environment Programme estimates that South Asian waters are at the highest risk of pollution: 825 million people in the region do not have basic sanitation services.23 In Mumbai, India, for instance, almost half of the city’s 12 million residents are either slum dwellers or homeless with little access to sewage and sanitation facilities. While PESCO-DEV is a recent small-scale project, its success provides an example of how local communities and governments can design and implement integrated population, health, and environment programs to protect and rehabilitate the coastal environment.1. Mangroves, forests of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs that grow in the shallow tidal waters of estuaries and coastal areas in tropical regions, line about 8 percent of the world’s coastlines and 25 percent of the world’s tropical coastlines, where they absorb the impact of storms and offer nutrients for most of the world’s marine life.12 A study by the U.S.-based World Resources Institute found that mangrove loss was strongly correlated with the growth of cities and ports.13 Mangrove forests are also cleared for timber and to make room for fish and shrimp ponds, human settlements, and agricultural and industrial development. because many populated areas are located near the coasts. Population Reference Bureau Since 2000, Save the Children has been implementing the People and Environment Coexistence Development Project (PESCO-DEV), working with 12 coastal fishing communities in the Philippines to find ways to balance activities linked to population growth and environmental concerns through participatory research, community mobilization, and pilot projects. The arrival of new fishermen, together with the introduction of new fishing techniques and increased access to credit and markets, has contributed to the overexploitation of sea cucumbers in the region.10. Coastal areas with high population densities are those with the most shoreline degradation or alteration. All Rights Reserved. Population, density and education all play a role. Many of the world’s small island or isolated states have large populations for their size. Manuel Benítez et al., “A Platform for Action for the Sustainable Management of Mangroves in the Gulf of Fonseca” (November 2000), accessed online at www.unesco.org/csi/wise/fonseca1.htm, on Aug. 14, 2003. Addressing population issues is key to achieving such balance. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Phone: +254 735 084293 Breaking the marine food chain reduces vital supplies of protein for about 1 billion people, most of whom live in developing countries.27, Yet restricting fishing rights and access to coastal waters in order to project marine fauna may harm vulnerable groups of people. For example, women in coastal areas may have unmet need for family planning — that is, they may want to limit or space their future births but may not be using contraceptives.35 Helping women reach their family planning goals can protect the environment by limiting population growth, but addressing family planning needs must be coordinated with several sectors, particularly the health sector. ICM has been endorsed repeatedly in international conferences, including the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa. Eighty percent of marine pollution comes from land-based sources; the remaining 20 percent comes from atmospheric sources, including acid rain and marine-based sources such as oil spills.21 As coastal communities grow, sewage can become a threat to local waterways: Demand often exceeds available sewage treatment, and much of the sewage is dumped without being treated. 4. Sitemap. The high concentration of people in coastal regions has produced many economic benefits, including improved transportation links, industrial and urban development, revenue from tourism, and food production. In fact, 14 of the world’s 17 largest cities are located along coasts. Evidence links long-term, low-level exposure to certain POPs with reproductive, immunological, neurological, and other problems in marine organisms and humans.25 In Mozambique, for example, more than 100 factories in and around the capital city of Maputo do not have waste treatment plants; toxic wastes, poisons, nondegradable substances, and organic matter are drained into coastal waters.26 These toxins can kill or contaminate marine life; people who eat seafood from polluted areas or who swim in contaminated waters are vulnerable to gastric and other infections. All three cities are densely populated and, while the nature's way of getting rid of pollution is through rains and long-lasting strong winds, the cities receive neither of the two. It can lead to unsustainable coastal development as infrastructure is built on the shoreline to accommodate tourists. This is a concern because population growth and the activities associated with it can degrade coastal and marine ecosystems.3 A number of worrying trends are already visible. In this 6 regions across India have been identified for measurements of population density. Malé, Island (divisions Henveiru, Galolhu, Machchangolhi, Maafannu), Republic of Maldives. Using data from scores of stations around the world, scientists can calculate a global average and adjust it for seasonal differences. height: 60px; The main cities in the Southeast include Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Marine fisheries and aquaculture (the controlled cultivation and harvesting of freshwater and marine organisms) produce close to 100 million tons of fish, shellfish, and edible plants every year, providing a livelihood for about 35 million people, most of whom live in developing countries.18 Overharvesting to meet global consumers’ growing demand for seafood can deplete many species and alter the biological structure of coastal ecosystems. In the United States, around 53% of the population lives near the coast. Because there is no common definition of what constitutes a coastal region, estimates of coastal populations vary. In a growing number of countries, coastal zone managers are adopting integrated, multidisciplinary approaches to resource management that incorporate the perspectives of all stakeholders, including governments, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and individuals. Poor women depend especially heavily on fish and fishing. Bénitez et al., “A Platform for Action for the Sustainable Management of Mangroves in the Gulf of Fonseca.”. Encourage students to think about how people move (transportation routes), weather, and climate. Managing population pressures in coastal zones is difficult because those regions encompass many physical, social, and regulatory divisions. Several strategies can be used to incorporate population and gender dynamics in planning project activities: In the Philippines, for example, projects have used a combination of these models to build links across sectors. }. Today, approximately 3 billion people — about half of the world’s population — live within 200 kilometers of a coastline. Students calculate population density in the United States and describe some of the patterns in the results. Sea level is measured by two main methods: tide gauges and satellite altimeters. Urbanization has a deleterious effect on mangroves. Have students brainstorm and draw why people might choose to live near the coasts. It can be used as a statistic to show how many people live in that specific area. In spite of this widespread concern over sea level rise, no accurate worldwide estimate of the number of people likely to be affected by coastal inundation or flooding has been published. Eleven of these cities, including Bangkok, Jakarta, and Shanghai, are in Asia. Coastal areas worldwide are major destinations for tourism, which represents the fastest growing sector of the global economy.15 Tourism dominates the economy of some regions and small island states; for example, tourism constitutes 95 percent of the economy of the Maldives and is the country’s only source of hard currency.16 Tourism can offer some environmental benefits, such as greater appreciation of the value of natural resources. If not properly managed, development can result in pollution, deforestation, and inadequate management of soil, water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Regular collection of reliable data to measure the success of management initiatives. Geography!!! Damming rivers can also have negative environmental effects, such as soil erosion and destruction of ecosystems that support various fish and marine mammals. Buccoo Reef, Tobago: Balancing Tourism, Health, and Livelihood. Buccoo Reef Trust, “Tobago Marine Research Centre: Background Paper” (unpublished paper, 2002). At least 107 of the world’s 134 coastal developing nations are involved in some type of ICM effort at the national or subnational level.33 In general, the most successful ICM efforts share several characteristics: Managing coastal areas requires concerted multisectoral efforts by government institutions at all levels, the private sector, and community groups, as well as sustained political support. Help students locate the place where they live on the map. Data can then be applied with simple participatory tools to quickly assess coastal and marine resources and identify critical threats, such as the extent of fishing and any destructive fishing practices (see Box 2). The situation is similar in rural Honduras, where women earn about half of what men do.29, Being less visible in their work, women are also less likely to have access to decisionmakers or to be consulted about the management of natural resources. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. Many species are overharvested because the world fishing fleet is larger than it needs to be. Multiple stakeholders, including representatives from all levels of government, NGOs, indigenous groups, communities, and the private sector; A strong scientific foundation to inform the management process; A formalized mandate and funding mechanisms; Formal decisionmaking that incorporates social, environmental, and economic data; Public participation starting at the initial stages of policy formulation and program development; Community-based management initiatives to develop community experience, build support, and provide information about regional or national programs; Capacity building of local experts through training, education, and applied research; Strong outreach services that provide information and education to all levels of management; and. The average population density in coastal areas is about 80 persons per square kilometer, twice the world’s average population density.7 Up to 50 percent of the population in northern Africa and Bangladesh lives in coastal areas; along the Nile Delta, the population density reaches 500 to 1,000 people per square kilometer.8 The additional demands that high population density places on the coasts have meant that higher density is associated with increased risks to marine ecosystems. Population density is a ratio of the average number of inhabitants per square kilometre. 4. This information is targeted to those who influence policy, such as policymakers and their advisers, the media, and nongovernmental organizations. As an example, point out the desert regions of the West and describe why few people live there. 2. Recent estimates indicate that over 34,000 people take glass-bottomed boats to visit the reef every year.3 Most reef boats stop to allow visitors to walk on the reef to observe fish, even though reef walks are illegal. Sustainability Policy |  In the United States, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration has developed the Coastal Assessment Framework, which uses census data and mapping programs to provide managers and analysts with a watershed-based system for collecting and organizing resource-use data and developing coastal management strategies.37 Many problems with water quality and ecosystems are best solved at the watershed level, which encompasses the full area that drains into a particular body of water. Affect fishing in the area, Maafannu ), weather, and regulatory divisions to! Past 50 years moreover, the media think you meant to compare coastal areas to current... 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