It has been described as Africa's most active volcano and has erupted over 40 times since 1885. Cones 19-21 still intermittently active through August 1992. An image captured in May 2017 shows steam at the summit crater and lava flows around the caldera, with Nyiragongo in the background (figure 71). The Alert Level for the nearby city of Goma remained at Yellow. Congo), in the rift depression. Scoria up to 5 cm in diameter fell 3 km from the vent, as during the first week of the eruption. Lava initially fountained from the entire length of the fissure zone, but activity was soon confined to its SE (and lowest) end. Occasionally, both vents were active simultaneously, but explosions usually alternated between them, building a double cone with estimated dimensions of 100 m height and 200-300 m width by 17 February. Only the 1912-1913 eruption caused fatalities. Nyamuragira erupted from cones and fissures on the NE flank between early November 2011 and mid-March 2012 (BGVN 39:03). at an angle of about 60°); at these extreme scan angles the pixel geolocation becomes less accurate (and the pixels increase in size, to about 2 by 4 km). In October 2001, another volcanic tremor was felt in the region followed by another in … The fissure trended SW-NE (the orientation of the regional rift axis) and was located at 2,250 m altitude, 3.5 km SW of the S edge of the caldera [but see 12:8], between the three small cones formed during the 1938 (Tschambene) eruption. Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, MODIS Thermal Alert System. The eruption started from the summit caldera of Nyamuragira and formed four cones: two on the N flank, one on the S flank, and one inside the caldera. The tectonic earthquakes had depths of 0-30 km with an aseismic zone between 12 and 17 km. A similar plot of the number of monthly MODVOLC thermal alert pixels for Nyamuragira from November 2011 through April 2017 (figure 68) shows that there were no thermal alerts for the period from April 2012-February 2014 when SO2 emissions were large and frequent. Smets and others (2010a) reported that lava from the 1938-2010 eruptions cover ~40% (more than 430 km?) On 11 and 12 February, the two anomalies had the same distribution and orientation, both showing an alignment along a SSE-NNW line drawn through the summit. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. Coppola, D., Campion, R., Laiolo, M., Cuoco, E., Balagizi, C., Ripepe, M., Cigolini, C., Tedesco, D., 2016, Birth of a lava lake:Nyamulagira volcano 2011-2015. When last reported (BGVN 29:04), Nyamuragira was in the midst of an eruption that had begun on 8 May 2004 and continued through 12 May. 9, 10, and 12). Two large lava flows moved quickly and joined below the lowest cone to form a main flow. Four craters were active at the beginning of the eruption. is a shield volcano located in the western end of the Virunga volcanic province (North Kivu, D.R. Our expert volcanologists and photographers offer unique travel experiences: The eruption since last update is still in progress and there is. Information Contacts: IRS; M. Krafft, Cernay. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Based on precursory activity before previous historical eruptions at Nyamuragira, GVO reported that a new eruption might occur in the next 2-4 months. No additional reports of activity were received until the crew of a British Airways flight observed an eruption cloud rising to ~7.5 km altitude on 15 October at 0555. Res., 245: 98-122., Wauthier, C., V. Cayol, M. Poland, F. Kervyn, N. d'Oreye, A. Hooper, S. Samsonov, K. Tiampo, B. Smets, 2013. When Katia Krafft began field work at the eruption site 3 January, a pair of lava fountains, 100-200 m high, was emerging from a small lava lake in the asymmetrical cone that had formed over the SE end of the fissure zone. 2003: February They found "very hot surfaces" they interpreted as representing "the lava lake within the summit crater.". [Rothery adds "Following this report, personal communications from Henry-Luc Hody and Bernard Louant revealed that the radiant pixels were coincident with a fumarole field that was active between at least August 1989 and April 1990. A few bombs weighing 1-2 kg were thrown as far as 100 m from the cone during Krafft's field work. Carn, S.A., and Bluth, G.J.S., 2003, Prodigious sulfur dioxide emissions from Nyamuragira volcano, D.R. A preliminary analysis of data from the Meteor-3 TOMS for 5-10 July revealed a small area of very high SO2 over the Nyiragongo/Nyamuragira area. The low tremor level does not signify an overall reduction in the Nyiragongo lava lake activity, but no fresh lava was apparent in the crater. Incandescent tephra and poisonous gas spread by violent winds killed livestock and vegetation, but no loss of human life has been reported. Information Contacts: N. Zana, CRSN, Bukavu; H-L. Hody, GEOVAR, Kigali, Rwanda. False eruption report, January 2002. New eruption on 8 May spawns cones, lava lake, fountains, and lava flows. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. Local tectonic earthquakes from late May through late June were 0-27 km deep, with an aseismic zone at 3-7 km. Mt. . Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.This volcano is located within the Virunga National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage property. Information Contacts: Wafula Mifundi and Mahinda Kasereka, Goma Volcano Observatory, Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Volcanologists in the D.R. There were reports of lava flowing from three cones, "flames" rising 100 m above the volcano, and ash falling over an area of 20 to 30 km2 around the volcano. Investigations were attempted during 28-29 January. B., Lubala, R. T., Brousse, R., and others, 1984, Sur l'eruption du Nyamulagira de Decembre 1981 a Janvier 1982: Cone et Coulee du Rugarambiro (Kivu, Zaire): BV, v. 47, p. 79-105. A large lava lake that had been active for many years emptied from the central crater in 1938. Congo), in the western branch of the East African Rift. The Toulouse VAAC reported that a diffuse ash plume was seen on satellite imagery on 29 January. On 2 November OVG measured the height from the base of the active cone to the W rim of the crater as 58 m (figure 81). No events were observed in October. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout ~2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow ~20 m wide. Smets' team noted that by 1 November 2014 GVO had seen a small lava lake in the deepest part of the crater. These data helped to demonstrate that only Nyamuragira was erupting and dispelled rumors about possible activity at neighboring Nyiragongo. An eruption . Only weak gas emission was observed the next day. Seismicity generally consisted of long-period (LP) earthquakes on the NE side of the volcano. This [lava fountaining] activity was also characterized by large amounts of SO2-rich gas emissions. Reference. Another fracture was active on the S flank, with lava fountains and one lava flow traveling towards the SW. The base can be reached with a walk of 5 hours going and 3 hours returning. This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. from a vent at 1.30°S, 29.27°E, 1,530 m asl and ~15 km NE of the summit crater. Paris, serie D, v. 289, p. 809-812. NOAA infrared satellite imagery illustrated the extent of the lava flow as it appeared beginning around the time of the eruption. Fountaining became more vigorous about 2200 on 3 January, but had declined to its previous level by the next morning. DR Congo's Nyamuragira volcano sends lava hundreds of metres into the sky, in its largest eruption of the century. Several farmers reported problems caused by cattle eating ash-laden grass. Nyamuragira has a volume of 500 cubic km, and covers an area of 1,500 km 2. TOMS image resolution is not sufficient to distinguish between Nyamuragira and nearby Nyiragongo as the source (consequently the images referred to below will provisionally remain associated with both volcanos). On 29 October the plume was directed to the N and contained 10 kt of SO2. Thermal data. For the eruption's first two weeks, lava fountaining was confined to the S end of a fissure ~500 m long. The eruption site was described as a flat area cut by a 500- to 1,000-m-long fissure. Nyamuragira (left) and Nyiragongo (right). An ash cloud was visible in satellite imagery the next day. Fuhrer zu den Virunga-Vulkanen. A large lava lake that had been active for many years emptied from the central crater in 1938. Cloudy conditions prevented clear views of the volcano. Flights on 1 and 3 August confirmed that the eruption was continuing at a high rate, but another look on 27 September showed that the eruption had ceased. Preliminary analysis indicates that this cloud contained ~230 kilotons (kt) of SO2. This activity was characterized by A-type (high-frequency) and C-type (low-frequency) events. This lake, ~ 300 m in diameter, was located in a pit ~ 15 m deep and fed by 4 strong lava fountains. Rumors of a new eruption at Nyamuragira circulated soon after a 17 January eruption at Nyiragongo (see this Bulletin). . The imaged plume was truncated by a data gap at that point, but no SO2 was detected beyond the gap ~600 km farther W. The highest SO2 concentrations (~86 milli atm cm) were recorded immediately W of Nyamuragira. This increase was thought to be related to rifting in the area of the Large African Lakes. Very high values directly over the volcanoes continued on 9 July, and the diffuse cloud to the W had ~250 kt SO2. . Information Contacts: Kasereka Mahinda and Jacques Durieux, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (Goma Volcano Observatory), Department de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. More than 100 adventive cones are scattered along its flanks and in … Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: Geophysical Aspects. During December, seismicity continued at Nyamuragira and may have increased. The depths of the earthquakes ranged from 0 to 30 km, with two main areas of concentration; one between 15 and 25 km deep, and the other between 0 and 4 km. Largest plumes of interval, Nyamlagira | Nyamulagira | Namlagira | Girungo-Namlagira, The IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk has a, Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (. The closest seismic station (Katale) recorded at the same time ~18 distinct explosion signals, directly followed at 1927 by a tectonic earthquake centered under the volcano. An aa lava flow a few meters wide cascaded from a breach in one wall of the cone and moved downslope at ~20 km/hour, but within 50 m had widened to 10 m and slowed to 7 km/hour as it passed through a channel between 5-m-high blocks. Preliminary analysis indicated an SO2 mass of ~125-140 kilotons (kt) in the 26 July cloud, with the highest SO2 concentrations (peaking at ~100 milli atm cm or Dobson Units) recorded in a ~400-km-long and ~300-km-wide segment of the plume extending WSW from the volcano across the DR Congo. A compilation of MODIS thermal anomalies for 1 year, 19 April 2006-16 April 2007 (figure 28), shows both a typical concentration of nearly daily anomalies over Nyiragongo resulting from the lava lake within the volcano's main crater, and also a considerable number of anomalies between Nyiragongo and nearby Nyamuragira (albeit, none over the Nyamuragira crater). Another data gap on 11 May prevented measurements directly over eastern DRC, but a large SO2 mass (~ 116 kt) was present W of the data gap, ~ 560 km S of Nyamuragira at its maximum extent. Bull Volcanol, 33: 1128-1144. The March-May 1971 eruption of Nyamuragira took place at Rugarama, on the NW flank (Pouclet and Villeneuve, 1972) rather than the SW flank or the summit crater as reported elsewhere. A second increase in lava fountaining, to as much as 200 m height, began suddenly about 1300 on 4 January. Kampunzu, A. Top: ERS-2 co-eruptive interferogram of the July 2002 eruption of Nyamuragira. Abundant sulfur dioxide emissions at Nyamuragira during November 2011-April 2017 show large variations in both magnitude and frequency during the period (table 3). More fragmentary data beyond the scope of this report as late as at least April 2015 suggests ongoing emissions if not a lava lake. At the S end of the 1989 fissure a new solfataric area was noticed; a feature not formed during the 1989 or 1991 eruptions. Lava flows covered a large area and a substantial quantity of tephra was deposited near the vents. Bukavu, DR Congo; Sentinel Hub Playground (URL:; MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL:; Sergio Maguna (Facebook:, images posted at SO2 is measured over the entire earth using NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the AURA spacecraft. More than 25 eruptions have been documented from Nyamuragira since 1882. The eruption began . 2019: May Further Reference. Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Satellite images in December as late as the 5th indicated reasonably dense plumes to ~12 km altitude. Nayar, A., 2009, A lakeful of trouble: Nature (News Feature), v. 460, p. 321-323 (16 July 2009), Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Smets, B., Kervyn, M., and Kervyn, F., 2010a, Analysis of historical eruptive activity at Nyamulagira (North Kivu, D.R.C. Eruption in 2014 Nyamuragira is a 3,058 metres (10,033 ft) shield volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Numerous flank eruptions were observed after that time, the most recent during November 2011-March 2012 on the NE flank. Ground observations. The team saw the eruption at 0330 on 25 July with lava venting at 3 different fractures, or fracture systems. The first satellite image showing thermal activity at the summit appeared on 18 April 2018 (figure 75) and coincided with the abrupt beginning of strong MIROVA thermal signals (figure 76). Volcanism continued through at least 2 March. Unlike previous eruptions at Nyamuragira, no significant high-frequency earthquakes were observed; these usually signal the end of the eruption. Nyamuragira (or Nyamulagira) is frequently active, either within the summit caldera, or more problematically from varying locations on the flanks. The lake was ~300 m in diameter and had four strong lava fountains in it. At that time, only one weak lava fountain remained active in the new crater. While the intensity of the lava flows decreased in mid-March, registered seismicity was at similar levels to December 2000, shortly before the eruption began. Beginning on 12 April seismic and lava-lake activity both declined. Sendai: Tohoku Univ Fac Sci, 130 p. IAVCEI, 1973-80. Information Contacts: ICAO; S. Doiron, GSFC; H-L. Hody, GEOVAR, Kigali, Rwanda. Activity is described through April 2017. Smoke was observed near the volcano and the sound of thunder was heard. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. Intermittent lava extrusion and ash emission from several vents. High lava fountains produced a lava flow to the SW. By 18 July, lava fountains were still 200 m high, and at the end of one week, the lava flow had extended 10 km SW toward Lake Sake, before ponding and spreading. Dark plumes of ash and scoria were occasionally ejected from this vent. Multispectral capabilities of ASTER also allowed measurement of a massive emission of SO2 from the cone (figure 37). An ASTER image on 18 January showed that the eruption occurred on the SE rift zone and gave rise to two significant lava flows (figure 36), the longest of which extended 12 km. The measurements showed inflation of the crater in all directions with the principal strain oriented N49°E. Descending RADARSAT-1 wrapped interferogram (26 October 1998 to 25 January 2000, incidence angle c. 358, Hamb 1?4 27 m) showing deformation associated with Nyamulagira?s 2000 eruption. It is 13 km north-north-west of Nyiragongo, the volcano which caused extensive damage to the city of Goma in its 2002 eruption. The following report was prepared by Akumbi Mbiligi with additional notes and explanations provided by Hiroyuki Hamaguchi, who has collaborated on Virungan volcano research for over 20 years. During 8-14 December the number of long-period earthquakes fell from to 169 at the Katale station from 239 the previous week, though the number of high-frequency earthquakes increased from 92 to 120. Activity during 27 October-14 December 2002. The eruption was preceded by an earthquake swarm on 10-11 October. Vent 18, near the middle of the fissure, began to erupt at about 1100 on 24 May. Lava fountaining was continuing and a cone was growing at the vent. GVO was attempting to organize helicopter overflights to collect more information for updates. 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