This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. Most of these were too small (magnitude 2) to be interpreted as precursors to an eruption, but some could be detected in nearby towns. A series of vents along a 2-km-long north–south-oriented fissure was active, with meltwater flowing mostly down the northern slopes of the volcano, but also to the south. The second phase resulted in an estimated 250 million cubic metres (330,000,000 cu yd) (0.25 km3) of ejected tephra and an ash plume that rose to a height around 9 km (5.6 mi), which rates the explosive power of the eruption as a 4 on the volcanic explosivity index. According to a news article from 27 October, a scientist at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences noted that the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, that began as a fissure eruption on 20 March 2010 and later continued from the summit caldera on 14 April, was over. Craters in autumn. While some ash fell on uninhabited areas in Iceland, most had been carried by westerly winds resulting in the shutdown of large air space over Europe. Although the volcanic eruptions were relatively small, the effects had a hugely debilitating impact on the European airline industry. [56][66] Many flights within, to, and from Europe were cancelled following 14 April 2010 eruption, and although no commercial aircraft were damaged, the engines of some military aircraft were harmed. It erupted three times in 2010—on 20 March, April–May, and June. Causes : Eyjafjallajökull lay on the sixth biggest ice sheet in Iceland, approximately 100km2 – this resulted in excess flood water as the ice sheet melted. The craters can be seen when hiking the Fimmvörðuháls trail as well as the lava field from the eruption called, Goðahraun. Plume from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (tan streak) moving southeast over the North Atlantic Ocean, April 15, 2010. The eruption happened underneath an ice sheet. The first phase of the 2010 eruption began late on the evening of 20 March at the Eyjafjallajökull. [59], During the eruption, the BBC television news announcers did not try to pronounce the name "Eyjafjallajökull," but called it "the Iceland volcano.". Due to the large quantities of dry volcanic ash lying on the ground, surface winds frequently lifted up an "ash mist" that significantly reduced visibility and made web camera observation of the volcano impossible. [25] The seismic activity continued to increase, and from 3 to 5 March, close to 3,000 earthquakes were measured having their epicentre at the volcano. It was a bit smaller, around 300 m (980 ft) long according to witnesses, and lava coming from it started to flow into Hvannárgil canyon. Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull Volcano burst into life for the first time in 190 years on March 20, 2010. The heat from the lava quickly melted and vaporized the glacier ice above. Fluoride poisoning can start in sheep at a diet with fluorine content of 25 ppm. The London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC),[15] part of the UK Met Office, was responsible for forecasting the presence of volcanic ash in the north-east Atlantic. In October 2010, Ármann Höskuldsson, a scientist at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences, stated that the eruption was officially over, although the area was still geothermally active and might erupt again. The lava was alkali olivine basalt[40] and was relatively viscous, causing the motion of the lava stream to the west and east of the fissure to be slow. The eruption was declared officially over in October 2010, when snow on the glacier did not melt. At 250 ppm, death can occur within a few days. The closure resulted in 10 million passengers left stranded across the world. Late on 20 March 2010 an eruption began at Fimmvörðuháls, an area around 1,000 m elevation in a ~ 2-km-wide pass of ice-free land between Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull. [64] In Scotland, the number of phone calls to health services for respiratory and eye irritation did not rise significantly. The eruption is thought to have begun on 20 March 2010, about 8 km (5 mi) east of the top crater of the volcano, on Fimmvörðuháls, the high neck between Eyjafjallajökull and the … The Institute of Earth Sciences[60] made a preliminary estimate of erupted material in the first three days of the eruption on 14 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull. [54] The thick layer of ash that had fallen on some Icelandic pastures and farms at Raufarfell had become wet and compact, making it very difficult to continue farming, harvesting, or grazing livestock.[55]. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. [3] By 21 May 2010, the second eruption phase had subsided to the point that no further lava or ash was being produced. By way of comparison, the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 was rated as 5 on the VEI, and the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was rated as a 6. The plume was driven southeast, across the North Atlantic Ocean to northern Europe, by the prevailing winds. The recent eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and the largest ash plume associated with the second eruption phase were not unparalleled in either volume or abundance; however, the location was the critical factor because it affected air travel across Europe.

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